Traces of methanol — a colorless and highly toxic liquid — were detected in the bodies of all 21 teenagers who were found dead at a South African nightclub last month as the investigation into the exact cause of the mysterious deaths that stunned the local community continues.

Government officials, members of the police service and department of health said at a press conference on Tuesday that while the substance had been detected in the blood samples of all victims, experts were still working to assess the levels of methanol recorded to determine if the amount was “lethal” or “non lethal.”

Litha Matiwane, Eastern Cape provincial deputy director for clinical service, said initial tests ruled out alcohol and carbon monoxide poisoning as possible causes of death and that officials were awaiting further, more conclusive, results from a laboratory in Cape Town.

The victims, who were aged between 13 and 17, were found slumped over tables and chairs inside the Enyobeni Tavern in the coastal city of East London on June 26. Initial reports suggested a stampede may have sparked the deaths, though officials later said they believed the victims had inhaled or ingested a toxic substance. No obvious signs of injury were present.

The deaths of the teenagers have sparked debate throughout the country over underaged drinking at taverns in South Africa’s Black townships, which are plagued by widespread poverty, high unemployment and lack of basic services as a legacy of apartheid. All of the victims were under the legal drinking age in South Africa, which is 18.

Yonela Dekeda, spokeswoman for the Eastern Cape health department told The Washington Post that the initial test results were “not conclusive.”

“There are more tests that are being done to identify exactly what the cause of death was,” she said. “We can’t say at this stage where they got the methanol, whether it was through liquor or something else. That is still unknown.”

Families seek justice after South Africa nightclub deaths

Methanol is often found in fuels, plastics, pesticides, paint and antifreeze. It is poisonous to humans and can cause an array of adverse health effects according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Most methanol poisonings occur as a result of drinking beverages contaminated with methanol or from drinking methanol-containing products, the CDC has said, adding that signs and symptoms of exposure, which may result in death, include: nausea, dilated pupils, decreased level of consciousness, and respiratory arrest.

Methanol is sometimes purchased in bulk and added to alcoholic drinks to make money, which can cause severe outbreaks, according the Methanol Poisoning initiative, an initiative launched by Oslo University Hospital (OUH) and Doctors Without Borders. The substance is used to dilute normal drinking alcohol.

One witness told The Washington Post that those suffering inside the venue yelled “I can’t breathe,” and “I’m choking,” before they dropped to the ground and died around her. Others recalled being “suffocated” by a substance that “smelled like gas.”

Survivor describes South Africa nightclub disaster: ‘I can’t breathe’

Dekeda said final results may “take weeks or months” to obtain. Asked whether other possible causes of death were being investigated, she said: “Not at the moment.”

Last week South African police said that the 52-year-old owner of the Enyobeni Tavern had been arrested along with two employees, aged 33 and 34. The owner is expected to appear in court next month, facing charges that include supplying underage people with alcohol, Reuters reported.

A mass funeral for the 21 teenagers was held on July 6, their coffins laid out side by side, surrounded by candles and yellow and white roses.

South African president, Cyril Ramaphosa, delivered a eulogy that paid tribute to the young victims – sharing details about their lives, their personalities and their hopes for the future.

“These are the lives we have lost,” he said as he named the victims. “Our nation has lost young people who wanted to become doctors, teachers, policemen and women, lawyers, actors, businesspeople, and entrepreneurs.”

In his speech, Ramaphosa vowed that the government would clamp down on those profiting from underage drinking.

“Blame must be laid at the feet of those who are making money off the dreams and lives of the young people of South Africa by breaking the law and selling them alcohol,” he said as he urged law enforcement and parents to work together to clamp down on illegal events and activity. “Today it is somebody else’s child, tomorrow it could be yours.”

Wroughton reported from Cape Town.

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