NEW YORK (AP) — People with hearing loss have long adopted technology to navigate the world, especially since hearing aids are expensive and inaccessible to many. Over the past several years, new options have exploded. Captions from apps like Otter have proven critical for people who needed to join online meetings, or even talk in person, especially when mask-wearing muffled speech during the pandemic. For others, captions have served as a helpful backstop. They are spreading beyond television to videoconferencing apps like Zoom, streaming services like Netflix, social media video on TikTok and YouTube, movie theaters and live arts venues and, of course, personal communications.