New research led by the University of Oxford says that successful conservation policies for marine mammals have increased the potential for conflict with small scale fishing communities.
The study published in the journal Conservation Letters says that management has to strike a balance, and the international community “needs to incorporate the needs and opinions of fishers in the global dialogue”.
This should include “considering if protecting human welfare could involve reducing protection for marine mammals”, the research states.
The paper drew on the experience of fisheries on the west coast of South America to highlight what the researchers describe as a “worldwide issue”.
“Globally, conflict between recovering seal and sea lion populations and fishing communities has been escalating,” the authors state.
They note that in South America, specifically Peru and Chile, marine mammals have been protected since the mid-20th century.
“ Conservation policies have mostly been successful and over the last thirty years marine mammal populations – specifically those of sea lions and seals – have recovered,” they state.
“ However, this recovery means that there’s a much higher likelihood that these animals will come into conflict with local fishers,” they say.
The study found that nearly nine out of ten fishers have a negative impression of sea lions, and they estimate that on average sea lions reduce their catch and income by over 50%.
“Whilst it’s illegal for sea lions and seals to be killed, this is happening regularly with over 70% of fishers admitting that sea lions are being killed to defend catches,”the study says.
It says that “fishers’ overwhelming concern is that sea lion populations are now too large”.
“To manage this conflict, there’s a need to balance the competing objectives of wildlife conservation with protection for local communities,”the researchers state.
“ There’s still concern about sea lion and seal populations because of how recently they’ve recovered, but small-scale fisheries are struggling, and fishers are often earning less than the minimum wage,”they note.
“If the global community is committed to a post-2020 deal for nature and people where improvements to people’s wellbeing and nature conservation are both fulfilled – the elusive ‘win-win’ – then governments and scientists must engage with these “messy” local conflicts that repeat across the globe but resist high-level simplification,”lead author Professor Katrina Davis, noted.
The study says that sea lions and seals eat the same fish targeted by fisheries, and it is not uncommon for fishers to catch fish that have already been “nibbled” by the marine mammals.
This is a similar situation in Ireland with competition between seals and inshore vessels.
Marine mammals can also be accidentally caught in fishing nets.
“A tricky balance must be met between ensuring the future viability of marine mammal populations and ensuring that the livelihoods of small-scale fishers are protected. Fishers perceive that they are suffering large catch and income losses because of sea lions—and it’s these perceptions that we have to manage when we’re developing policy solutions,” Prof Davis says.
The researchers say the plan to investigate the impact of culls, and whether this would be viable without harming population levels, and whether it would curb aggression towards marine mammals.
The full paper can be read here